Skip to content

Dr. Scott Ferguson Selected Occupational History

Clinic Director, Chiropractor, Miami Valley Spine and Injury and Health By Logic, Beavercreek, Ohio, 2000-present

EDUCATION and LICENSURE

  • Doctor of Chiropractic, Licensed in the State of Ohio, License #3008, 2000-present
  • Doctorate of Chiropractic, Life University, Atlanta, Georgia, 1997-2000
  • National Board of Chiropractic Examiners, Part I, 1999
  • National Board of Chiropractic Examiners, Part II, 1999
  • National Board of Chiropractic Examiners, Part III, 1999
  • National Board of Chiropractic Examiners, Part IV, 2000
  • National Board of Chiropractic Examiners, Physiotherapy 1999
  • Undergraduate Studies in PreMed, Scott Community College, Bettendorf, Iowa, 1996
  • Undergraduate Studies in PreMed, Sinclair Community College, Dayton, Ohio, 1996
  • Undergraduate Studies in PreMed, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio, 1995-1996
  • Undergraduate Studies in PreMed, Wittenberg University, Springfield, Ohio, 1994-1995
  • Undergraduate Studies in PreMed, School, Northern Kentucky University, Highland Heights, Kentucky, 1993-1994

SELECTED POST-GRADUATE EDUCATION and CERTIFICATIONS

  • Fellowship in Spinal Biomechanics and Trauma, 2019-present
  • Active Trauma Team Member, 2017-present
  • Primary Spine Care Qualified-2016-present
  • Interprofessional Hospital Qualified-2016-present

PAIN MANAGEMENT ROTATION

Specialty Research in Pain Management — Clinical and Procedural — Growth of Interventional Pain Management Techniques and Current Trends in Pharmacological Management of Neuropathic Pain. ESI comparison to gabapentin in lumbosacral radicular pain — current trends and future progress of pain management interventions. Mode of action, required dosage, advantages and side effects profiles of currently available pharmacological approaches. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Pain Management — Clinical and Procedural — Therapeutic Effects of Spinal Injection Therapy — Facet, medial branch blocks, prolotherapy and epidural interventions utilization within the Medicare population, effectiveness on lumbar central canal stenosis with and without steroids and effect on prevention of spinal surgery, herniated disc, fibromyalgia and chronic musculoskeletal pain. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Pain Management — Clinical and Procedural — Adverse Events Associated with Injection Therapy — transforaminal and interlaminar epidural steroid injections, anesthesia technical considerations, effects on cervical radiculopathy midline versus paramedian approaches and perineurial injection of autologous conditioned serum. Review of FDA risk assessment.
Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Pain Management — Clinical and Procedural — Correlation of MRI Findings and Injection Outcomes — MODIC Changes on MRI and effectiveness of facet injection, facet joint signal change on MRI with fat suppression comparison with SPECT/CT. Discussion of Modic 1, 2 and 3 with correlation of clinical outcomes and patient selection criteria. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Pain Management — Clinical and Procedural — Therapeutic Effects of Botulinum Toxin and Dry-Needling in Myofascial Pain Syndrome — cost effectiveness, patient response and triage of therapeutic interventions. Physiological review of trigger point etiology and clinical presentation of acute and chronic pain. Functional response of intervention including relief and recurrence. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Pain Management — Clinical and Procedural — Systematic Review Technical Considerations in Cervical Epidural Analgesia — Chemical blockage of cervical nerve roots, review of anatomical structures and correlation with MRI imaging. Blockage effects on the respiratory, circulatory and neurological systems. Review of cervical epidural space (CES) borders and variants in patient population. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Pain Management — Clinical and Procedural — Trends in opioid analgesic abuse and mortality in the USA, Evaluation of Opioid Pain Management in Injured Children, assessment of opioid reporting in Veteran Affairs — Emergency visitation in pediatric injury, pain management and adoption of best practices. Trends in use of prescription opioid medication using RADARS (Research Abuse, Diversion and Addiction Related Surveillance System), comparison between legitimate pharmacy channels and diversion and abuse. Opioid use prevalence and incidents in Veteran Affairs, new prescriptions or long-term conversion and relationship to persistent growth in opioid use. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Pain Management — Clinical and Procedural — Electrodiagnostic Testing, Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injection, Intra-articular Facet Joint Injection, Spinal Manipulation Post-Epidural Injection– Needle EMG, active versus chronic denervation in lumbar, cervical spinal pathologies and differential diagnosis of spinal stenosis and intervertebral disc herniation. Systematic review of facet joint injections, clinical trials and conservative therapy in lower back pain. Results of spinal manipulation post-epidural injection in the cervical spine. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Pain Management — Clinical and Procedural — Radiofrequency Ablation and outcome measures — medication, function and pain in relation to pain of spinal origin. Medial Branch Block as prognostic tool prior to lumbar facet radiofrequency denervation. Clinical comparison disc herniation, disc bulge, cervical and lumbar radiculopathy. Diagnosis and patient triage correlation to anatomical spine structures. Long, short term risk factors and outcomes in radiofrequency ablation. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Pain Management — Clinical and Procedural — Role of Cannabinoids in Pain Management — review of pharmacological, botanical or synthetic origins of cannabinoids. Mechanism of action in alleviation of pain including analgesic, anti-inflammatory effects, modular actions on neurotransmitters and interactions with prescribed or endogenous opioids. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

MRI PHYSICS

Specialty Research in MRI Physics — The Hardware — magnet types including permanent, resistive and superconducting magnets. Volume RF, surface, quadrature and phase array coils and other hardware necessary for the generation of MRI imaging. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in MRI Physics — Physics of Image Generation 1 — magnetization, excitation, relaxion, acquisition, computing and display. T1 relaxion and relaxation curves, T2 relaxation, phase and phase coherence, T2 relaxion curves. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in MRI Physics — Physics of Image Generation 2 — gradient coils, signal coding including slice encoding gradient, phase encoding gradient, Frequency encoding gradient. Gradient specifications and slice thickness. Filling k-space, k-space symmetry and k-space filling technique. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in MRI Physics — Physics of Image Generation 3 — pulse sequences, spine echo sequences including multi-slicing and multi-echo sequencing. T1, T2, proton density contrast and their applications. Turbo spine echo, fast advanced spine echo (HASTE) sequence and gradient echo sequence. Inversion recovery sequence including STIR and FLAIR sequence. Choosing the right sequence pros and cons, T1, T2 and PD parameters. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in MRI Physics — Physics of Image Generation — technical parameters and artifacts — repetition time, echo time, flip angle, inversion time, number of acquisitions, matric and field of view. Slice thickness, slice gap, phase encoding direction 1 and direction 2 and relation to bandwidth. Motion artifact, para-magnetic artifact, phase wrap artifact, susceptibility artifact, clipping artifact, spine and zebra artifacts. Effects on image quality and acquisition. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

NEURORADIOLOGY

Specialty Research in Neuroradiology — radiographic evolution of a Schmorl’s node — acute Schmorl’s node and progression to chronic stage comparison to serial MRI. Endplate fracture and acute presentation and correlation to clinical findings and pain patterns. Presentation in plain film radiograph and MRI images were compared and contrasted in both acute and chronic stages. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Neuroradiology — syringomyelia, fluid dynamics and spinal cord motion — scoliosis curve patters and syrinx characteristics versus Chiari I malformation. Normal MRI appearance and motion artifacts related to cerebral spinal fluid motion related phenomena and common appearances on MRI imaging. Syrinx wall and fluid motion and correlation to cardiac cycle with comparison between systolic and diastolic presentations. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Neuroradiology — Spinal Biomechanics, Thoracolumbar Deformity and Surgical Outcomes — full spine analysis, adjacent spinal biomechanics and its impact on surgical outcomes. Sagittal alignment pelvis to cervical spine and association with kyphosis and lordosis mechanical positioning. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Neuroradiology — MRI and EMG comparison in denervated muscle diagnosis — lumbar spine pathology and age in relation to paraspinal muscle size and fatty infiltration. Fatty degeneration of paraspinal muscle in degenerative lumbar kyphosis and CT versus MRI digital analysis. Positive correlations with edema on MRI and fibrillations, positive sharp waves, denervation and the level of reduced recruitment pattern. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Neuroradiology — association between annular tear and disc degeneration — high intensity zone (HIZ) in lumbar disc and association to annular fissure on MRI. Identification of duel HIZ and its relationship to acute inflammation and calcified tissue and its association with discogenic pain patterns. Influence of phenotype, population size and inclusion sequence. T1, T2 and STIR imaging comparison and correlation. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Neuroradiology — degenerative cervical myelopathy — paraspinal muscle morphology, clinical symptoms and functional status. Review of fatty infiltration, asymmetry findings and correlation with clinical symptoms and functional scores. Review of complex anatomical arrangement of superficial and deep muscle layers in the cervical spine, correlation to MRI findings. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Neuroradiology — MRI Neurography, Diffuse Tensor Imaging (DTI) — diagnostic accuracy and fiber tracking in spinal cord compression. Review of spinal cord structural integrity, peripheral neuropathy and correlation to diffuse tensor imaging findings. Comparison in combining DTI with T2 and T2 alone and its value in magnetic resonance neurography. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Neuroradiology — Nomenclature and Classification of Lumbar Disc Pathology — modified Pfirrmann grading system and lumbar disc degeneration. Consensus driven description of intervertebral disc nomenclature including intervertebral disc bulge, herniation, protrusion, broad based disc herniation, extrusion and sequestration. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Neuroradiology — MRI evaluation of intradural tumor — neuroimaging of spinal tumors and correlation to histological study. Determining method of choice for evaluation, review of numerous types of intradural-extramedullary masses including meningioma and schwannoma. Signal intensities, contrast enhancement patterns, presence of cysts and other key differentiation findings of spinal cord tumors. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Neuroradiology — Spinal Cord Compression, Myelomalacia, MRI Imaging and Clinical Correlation — positional cervical spinal cord compression and fibromyalgia. T1 and T2 weighted images, comparison of hypo and hyperintense signals and extent of intramedullary changes on MRI. Review of MRI findings associated with myelomalacia and discussion of correlation with clinical findings. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Neuroradiology — MRI Characteristics of Lumbar Facet Synovial Cyst — formation characteristics of synovial cyst, relation to degenerative changes in spinal facet joints as demonstrated on MRI. Pre and post-surgical procedural MRI were reviewed and compared. Surgical management and subsequent resection were demonstrated. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Neuroradiology — Variability in MRI Diagnostic Error Rates — in depth review of quality of MRI imaging and comparison to consistent MRI diagnosis between facilities. Errors of interpretation in the study examinations were considered and presented. Impact of radiological diagnosis, location of MRI study and reading radiologist and impact on treatment choice and clinical outcomes. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY — EXTREMITY

Specialty Research in Orthopedic Extremity Surgery — Wrist Anatomy and Osseous Kinematics — normal kinematics using biplanar radiographic model were reviewed. Discussion of extensive database of carpal bone anatomy and kinematics from a large number of healthy subjects. 3-D motion of each bone was calculated for each wrist position and discussed. Database constructed including high-resolution surface models, measures of bone volume and shape, and the 3-D kinematics of each segmented bone. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Orthopedic Extremity Surgery — Normal Motion of the Shoulder and Glenohumeral Instability — normal motion of the shoulder joint compared with clinical implications of glenohumeral joint instability including surgical recommendations. Review and overview of the anatomy of the glenohumeral joint, emphasis on instability based on the current literature. Description of detailed anatomy and anatomical variants of the glenohumeral joint associated with anterior and posterior shoulder instability. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Orthopedic Extremity Surgery — Orthopedic Testing and Shoulder Pathology Diagnosis — use of orthopedic special tests (OSTs) to diagnose shoulder pathology and clinical examination. Review OST clusters, examination of methodology and illustration of their use in arriving at a pathology-based diagnosis. Discussion of examination of the biceps tendon and clinical relevance. Review of SLAP lesion and shoulder impingement syndrome were reviewed. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Orthopedic Extremity Surgery — Electrodiagnostic Testing and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome — Review of the most common mononeuropathy in the human body. Relationship between clinical findings, neurological examination and electrodiagnostic testing in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. Acute and chronic symptoms including progression of the disorder were reviewed. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Orthopedic Extremity Surgery — Current Concepts in Elbow Disorders — Detailed anatomy of osseus, ligamentous and muscular structure of the elbow was reviewed. Common disease of elbow disorders and their treatment was discussed. Lateral epicondylitis and medial collateral ligament injury of the elbow were outlined. Rheumatoid arthritis, posttraumatic osteoarthritis, and elderly patients with comminuted distal humeral fractures. Surgical design and technique were outlined. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Orthopedic Extremity Surgery — Differentiating Cervical Spine from Shoulder Pathology — anatomical review of cervical spine and glenohumeral joint focus on similarities and differences. Cervical disorders masking shoulder pain, cervical radiculopathy, cervical spondylotic myelopathy, facet and discogenic pain patterns were outlined. Details of shoulder pathology parsonage-tuner syndrome, subscapular neuropathy and thoracic outlet were presented. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Orthopedic Extremity Surgery — MRI of the Shoulder and Shoulder Girdle — review of MRI analysis of scapular fracture. Detailed review of scapular function rehabilitation and training on chronic pain syndromes. Reliability of magnetic resonance imaging versus arthroscopy for the diagnosis and classification of superior glenoid labrum anterior to posterior lesions. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Orthopedic Extremity Surgery -Cataloging Movements of the Ankle, Hip and Spine — Review Standardization and Terminology Committee (STC) of the International Society of Biomechanics (ISB) and classification of joint kinematics. Standard for the local axis system in each articulating bone is generated and presented. Rationale for international standards among researchers was presented. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Orthopedic Extremity Surgery -Cataloging Movements of the Shoulder, Elbow, Wrist and Hand — Review Standardization and Terminology Committee (STC) of the International Society of Biomechanics (ISB) and classification of joint kinematics. Standard for the local axis system in each articulating bone is generated and presented. Rationale for international standards among researchers was presented. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Orthopedic Extremity Surgery — MRI and Diagnosis of Shoulder Disorders — normal and abnormal shoulder anatomy as viewed on MRI was presented. Review and presentation of MRI in the diagnosis and treatment of brachial plexus injury. Discussion of preganglionic avulsions and muscular denervation. Comparison of CT myelography to MRI myelography were outlined. Enhanced three dimensional T1 high-resolution isotropic volume excitation MR in the evaluation of shoulder pathology. Comparison with two-dimensional enhanced T1 fat saturation MRI were discussed. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Orthopedic Extremity Surgery — Clinical Evaluation of Upper and Lower Extremity Pathology — review of relevant anatomy in shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee and ankle was presented. Physical examination including orthopedic, neurological and range of motion testing was presented and compared with findings on MRI results. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

ORTHOPEDIC SPINE SURGERY

Specialty Research in Orthopedic Spine Surgery — Fusion Surgery and Lumbar Stenosis — efficacy of fusion and decompression surgery in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. Review of degenerative spondylolisthesis and patient selection criteria. Discussion of correlation of MRI, CT findings and clinical evaluation. Review of sedimentation sign on MRI and indications of prognostic factors. Surgery versus nonsurgical treatment outlined and outcomes discussed. Compensation for lumbar spinal stenosis and clinical sagittal plane deformity was presented. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Orthopedic Spine Surgery — Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion and Adjacent Segment Degeneration (ASD) — adjacent segment degeneration as major consequence of spinal fusion. Review of occurrence and location with correlation between surgical outcomes were discussed. Discussion of age, BMI and pre-existing stenosis in cranial adjacent segment as risk factors. ASD prevalence in radiographic evidence between cranial and caudal segments were reviewed. Presentation of risk factors and pre-operative radiological features. Facet sagittalization and tropism were discussed. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Orthopedic Spine Surgery — Morbidity and Mortality Predictions in Spinal Surgery — Review of the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and the American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) Physical Status Classification System. Review of index outcomes and relation to costs of care. Discussion of index rating and likelihood of complications. Review of classification system in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) leaks. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Orthopedic Spine Surgery — Spondylolisthesis, clinical and radiographic classifications — classification system that considers disc space height, sagittal alignment and translation, and the absence or presence of unilateral or bilateral leg pain was discussed. Detailed review of spondylolisthesis etiology, clinical presentation and imaging findings was reviewed. Review of inter and interobserver reliabilities of radiographic and clinical criteria. Review of consensus driven treatment options for degenerative spondylolisthesis presented. Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (TLIF) in degenerative disc disease with associated spondylolisthesis grade I was reviewed and correlated. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Orthopedic Spine Surgery — Sagittal Alignment and Spinal Surgery, Clinical Outcomes and Follow up — discussion of outcomes and sagittal alignment in single unilateral transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). Detailed review of surgical TLIF procedure and associated mid and long-term clinical outcomes. Discussion and presentation of influence of pelvic incidents and lumbar lordosis mismatch and post-operative residual symptoms. Analysis of adjacent segment disease following fusion. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Orthopedic Spine Surgery — Complications and Outcomes in Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery — review of surgical approaches and complications in correction of adult spinal deformity. Relevance of age, comorbidities, blood loss, osteoporosis and smoking were discussed. Discussion of Cobb Angle, Sagittal Vertical Axis, Pelvic Tilt, Thoracic Kyphosis were reviewed and examined in relation to transpsoas lateral interbody fusion (LIF), percutaneous pedicle screw (PPS), transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). Comparison between minimally invasive and traditionally open procedures was provided and reviewed. Discussion of minimally invasive surgery options were emphasized and outcomes reviewed with correlation to diagnosis and procedural coding. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Orthopedic Spine Surgery — Surgical Interventions in Lumbar Disc Herniation — review of differences in surgical treatment of recurrent lumbar disc herniation. Clinical correlation between plain film radiography, MRI studies and clinical presentation were reviewed. Data on frequency in management of recurrent lumbar intervertebral disc herniations presented. Duration of symptoms and influence of patient outcomes in sciatica patients undergoing micro-discectomy and decompressions. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Orthopedic Spine Surgery — Length of Stay in Lumbar Spinal Surgery — discussion on epidemiology of lumbar surgery outcomes and hospital stay. Correlation to clinical presentation and comorbidities were reviewed. Outline of decompression and instrumental fusion in the lumbar spine. Review of costs of lumbar surgery, trends in hospital stay and costs both on a cumulative and daily basis. Comparison of the nationwide inpatient sample and national surgical quality improvement program databases for lumbar spine fusion procedures was reviewed and presented. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Orthopedic Spine Surgery — Pre-Surgical Planning and Implant Design — 3-D printing and surgical planning discussion a variety of historical materials in the creation of patient specific implants based on unique individual anatomy. Historical trends in the creation of prosthetics with 3-D modeling software using neuroimaging data. Review of treatment complex spinal pathologies and surgical planning was discussed. Outline of current and future barriers to global implementation and commercialization was reviewed. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Orthopedic Spine Surgery — Spine Surgery Procedures in Medical Specialty Training — discussion of current spine surgery training including fellowship programming in the United States. Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) cases logs were reviewed and discussed. Variability of procedures within programs and between medical specialty programs were outlined. Differential utilization between orthopedic and neurosurgical fellows was reviewed. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Orthopedic Spine Surgery — Cerebral Spinal Fluid Dynamics, Central Nervous System Pathology and Intracranial Hypotension — pathophysiology and various craniospinal disorders. Directional phase contrast MRI (4D Flow) was reviewed along with the anatomical and physiological properties of cerebral spinal fluid. Specific disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, hydrocephalus, Chiari Malformation and syringomyelia. Clinical correlation of CSF dynamics to understanding disease process was reviewed including normal and abnormal flow patterns. Recent advancements in fluid flow studies were outlined and presented. Signal intensity changes on MRI study in cervical spondylotic myelopathy was discussed and compared to normal parameters. Fluid dynamics patterns within syringomyelia and Chiari malformation was discussed and correlated to MRI findings and clinical presentations. Spinal microsurgical exploration surgery and resultant CSF leak and spontaneous intractable intracranial hypotension was reviewed and its pathoanatomical presentation outlined. Review of the natural and surgical history of Chiari malformation Type I in pediatric population and clinical correlation with MRI studies. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

NEUROSURGERY

Specialty Research in Neurosurgery — Anatomy and Physiology of the Blood Brain Barrier — Review of consequences of alterations in homeostatic control of the neuronal environment. Discussion of blood flow alterations and altered vessel permeability as determinants in the pathophysiology of brain injury. Review present day literature on the anatomy, development and physiological mechanisms of the blood–brain barrier. The blood brain barrier’s role in the maintenance of the extracellular environment. Vascular anatomy of the spinal cord was review in relation to the physiology of the neural environment. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Neurosurgery — Spinal Cord Anatomy, Physiology and Vascular Reactivity — detailed review of the blood supply of the spinal cord, anatomy of the vascular system and physiology of blood flow. Pathophysiology of various conditions including Thoracic Aortic Occlusion and Spinal Cord Injury were discussed with specific relation to risk of neurological deficit. Severity and duration as an effect was reviewed and correlated clinically. Cerebral circulation and aging, discussion of effects on cognitive functioning and cerebrovascular disease in aging. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Neurosurgery — Upper Cervical Spine Anatomy and Cerebral Spinal Fluid Flow — MRI flow imaging and computational fluid dynamics in healthy patients with Chiari Malformations. Review of abnormal cerebral spinal fluid flow oscillations and their effects on healthy patients. Discussion of nonlaminar complex spatial and temporal variations with associated pressure waves and pressure gradients causing syringomyelia, headaches and other clinical manifestations in Chiari I malformation. Microsurgical anatomy and internal architecture of brainstem in 3D images and surgical considerations. CSF hydrodynamic changes, spinal cord injury and development of post traumatic syringomyelia (PTSM). Impact of spinal cord nerve roots and denticulate ligaments on cerebral fluid dynamics in the cervical spine was reviewed and discussed. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Neurosurgery — Compression and Degeneration in Chronic Nerve Root Entrapment — differentiation between peripheral nerves and spinal nerve roots and effects of electrostimulation. Discussion of various stimulating or recording neurosurgical implants and success vs failure rates. Review of the nerve root compression and its relation to consequences of disc herniation and acute compression during surgery. Maximum pressure level a spinal nerve root can sustain is reviewed. Discussion of microsurgical anatomy of lumbosacral nerve rootlets, Rhizotomy and chronic spinal cord injury. Review of qualitative grading of severity of lumbar spinal stenosis on morphology of dural sac on MRI studies, review of classification systems and the consideration of impingement of neural tissue. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Neurosurgery — Anatomy of Circle of Willis, Cerebral Arteries and Stroke Etiology — discussion of stroke by embolism, source and cause in diagnosis and long-term treatment. Review of complex nature of embolus transport and its relation to etiology. Image based hemodynamics with discrete particle dynamics in relation to the distribution of emboli across the various cerebral arteries. Detailed anatomy of Circle of Willis reviewed and discussed with particular focus on size/inertia dependent trends in embolus distribution to the brain, distribution of cardiogenic versus aortogenic emboli among anterior, middle and posterior cerebral arteries, left versus right brain preference in cardio-embolus and aortic emboli transport and source-destination relationship for embolisms affecting the brain. Detailed review of the microsurgical anatomy of the posterior cerebral artery in three dimensional images. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Neurosurgery — Stroke Therapy, Implementation and Cost-Effectiveness — review of endovascular therapy in addition to standard care in acute ischemic vessel occlusion stroke. Comparison in National Institutes of Health Stroke Score (NIHSS) score, symptom onset, Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) and occlusion location. Considerations in acute management and revascularization of tandem occlusions in acute ischemic stroke with literature review. Discussion of Transcirculation Pipeline embolization device deployment as a rescue technique. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Neurosurgery — Surgical Approaches and Outcomes in Spine Surgery 1 — review of historical interventions, multilevel decompression and instrumented fusion in reduction of neural compression and spinal column stabilization. Discussion of morbidity and mortality in relation to surgical procedures. The use of the modified fragility index to predict 30-day morbidity and mortality from spine surgery. Differences in patient selection for minimally invasive versus open surgical procedures, and review of post-surgical outcomes. Morbidity, mortality and health care costs for patients undergoing spine surgery following ACGME resident duty-reform. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Neurosurgery — Surgical Approaches and Outcomes in Spine Surgery 2 Predisposing factors for dural tears in lumbar spine surgery including degenerative conditions, prior surgery and age related indicators were reviewed. Discussion and review of re-admission rages in spine surgery through metanalysis and systematic review. Bibliometric study of the most important minimally invasive (MIS) spine surgery papers including Level III and IV studies with focus on moving toward Level I and Level II. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

EMERGENCY MEDICINE

Specialty Research in Emergency Medicine — Emergency Medicine and Spine Pain — review of lack of guidelines for the management of lower back pain in the ED. Frequency of lower back pain visitation in the emergency department including environmental/sociocultural dimensions and physical/psychospiritual dimensions were reviewed. Discussion of utilization of significant healthcare resources with complete description of lower back pain characteristics, health services use in non-urgent lower back pain patients presenting to the ED. Managing spine pain in the ED using usual and customary medical intervention. Extent of appropriate CT and MRI scans in the hospital setting, accessibility reviewed in conjunction with presented national data. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Emergency Medicine — Medication Usage and Motor Vehicle Accidents — review of ADHD medication utilization and motor vehicle accident data and frequency of motor vehicle accident sin this specific patient population. Review of the prevalent and preventable cause of morbidity and mortality among patients and concepts of restricting based on prognostic factors. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Emergency Medicine — Emergency Department Imaging Perspectives — review of imaging protocols among a spectrum of clinical indications, perspective on aging populations and clinical complexity. Review of CT, MRI, plain film imaging and ultrasound and their relationships to internal medicine and musculoskeletal disorders examined on an emergency basis through patient generated national survey data. Details of specific contexts in which imaging has become concentrated and targeted efforts for optimization of utilization. considerations of utilization of CT in the emergency department and evaluation to increasing trends. Review of quality improvements in imaging utilization. Comparison between pediatric and adult imaging protocols and trends. Discussion and analysis of “Choose Wisely” recommendations and creating of guideline/policy/clinical pathways in New England EDs. MRI utilization in pediatric ED reviewed and analyzed. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Emergency Medicine — Cauda Equina Syndrome and Other Emergent Conditions — traumatic injuries to the thoracolumbar spine and overall impact on emergency services. Discussion of exact definitions of Conus Medullaris Syndrome (CMS) and Cauda Equina Syndrome (CES). Diagnosis in acute phase and radiological findings clinically correlating with physical examination findings. Parameters for spinal regions of traumatic injury were presented and reviewed. Case presentations for neck and spine were included and reviewed with particular focus on differential diagnosis and case uniqueness. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Emergency Medicine — Emergency Medicine Residency Curriculum — review of Ohio State University Emergency Medicine Residency Program Musculoskeletal Emergencies Curriculum. Outline of the significant nature of musculoskeletal emergency presentations to ED. Details in the training required to master clinical experience, self-directed learning and small group didactics. Case study reviews and discussion was presented with particular focus on infection vs non-infections and traumatic vs non-traumatic presentations in ED. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Emergency Medicine — Opioid vs Non-Opioid Medications in the Emergency Department — discussion of limited evidence of long-term outcomes of opioids with non-opioid medication for chronic pain. Literature review on effectiveness for opioid interventions. Discussion of alternative recommendations, evidence demonstrating lack of benefit and poor long term outcomes. Variation in physician opioid prescriptions discussed. Patterns of opioid initiation at first visits for pain in the ED in the United States including frequency and dosage. Emergency Department data concerning the persistent pain after motor vehicle accidents and comparison between opioid and NSAID prescribed in the ED. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Emergency Medicine — Concussion and Repeat ED visits — review of patients presenting to ED with concussion with re-visitation within 72 hours. Mechanism of injury including closed head injury, assault, fall and motor vehicle accidents discussed. Epidemiological evidence presented regarding number of visitations, characteristics and care paths reviewed. Discussion of adoption of a more comprehensive discharge plan to further prevent repeat visits was outlined. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Emergency Medicine — CDC Epidemiology of ED Visits in the United States, Adults Over 65 and Motor Vehicle Accidents — Evaluation of data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and frequency of ED visitation. Percentage of visits requiring hospital admission was reviewed along with patterns of need for critical care. Review of imaging ordering statistics and clinical diagnosis was discussed. Details of primary and secondary ED diagnosis presented in relation to sprain/strain, contusion and spinal pathology including herniated intervertebral disc, facture and spinal cord compression. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Emergency Medicine — National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey — a review of the current representative data on ambulatory care visits to hospital emergency departments in the United States. Demographics, residence, insurance class, chief complaint with focus on traumatic injury, diseases of the nervous and musculoskeletal systems were outlined. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Emergency Medicine — Lower Back Pain and Emergency Room Visits — detailed analysis of impact of lower back pain on ED globally. First systematic review of the trends in the literature including lower back pain as significant complaint and the variables in its definition. Discussion of the proper diagnosis and triage of lower back pain and its current impact on ED management was reviewed. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Emergency Medicine — Spinal Cord Injury without Radiographic Abnormality (SCIWORA) in Adults — case reports — detailed review of Spinal Cord Injury without Radiographic Abnormality was presented. Syndrome of post traumatic myelopathy demonstrable on MRI with no evidence of osseous injury on plain film or CT scan. Reporting of incidence was included with detailed discussion of case presentations, accurate diagnoses and triage was reviewed. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Emergency Medicine — CDC Traumatic Brain Injury Data — Related Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations, Deaths — United States, 2007 and 2013 — traumatic brain injury, short and long term adverse clinical outcomes, death and disability reviewed and compared based on CDC data over a 7 year period. Mechanism of causation including motor vehicle accidents, falls and assault. Public health recommendations and interpretation of data was presented. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Emergency Medicine — CDC Data, Trends in Emergency Department Visits for Ischemic Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack — relationship between stroke and statistical cause of death, type of stroke and prognosis related to recurrence was discussed. Specific definitions of ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack with etiology and relationship to emergency visits were outlined and presented. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Emergency Medicine — US Emergency Department Use by Children — pediatric utilization of emergency medicine resources, description of trends on a national basis. Detailed analysis of specific demographics including race and resident status were reported and reviewed. Discussion in allocation of resources including insurance class and coverage were reviewed. Anticipated expansion of Medicaid was considered and reviewed. Estimates of nonurgent ED visits by children were presented and discussed. Academy of Chiropractic, State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019

PRIMARY CARE/INTERNAL MEDICINE

Specialty Research in Primary Care and Internal Medicine — Supply of Chiropractic Care and Visits to Primary Care Physicians for Neck and Back Pain — discussion of primary care visits and lower back pain. Expenditures and contributions to disability data. Discussion of supply of chiropractic care in context of visits for lower back pain and primary care physicians. Estimated national impact of primary care visits and expenditures was outlined with a focus on chiropractic’s assistance in managing lower back pain. Defining an “episode” of lower back pain and relationship to collection of epidemiological data. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Primary Care and Internal Medicine — Safety of Chiropractic Care in Lower Back Pain and Migraine Headaches — review of adverse events associated with chiropractic care in the treatment of migraine. Outline of a prospective 3-armed, single-blinded, placebo RCT. Discussion of transient and mild events following chiropractic intervention. Randomized clinical trials and meta-analysis reviewed and discussed relating to the diagnosis and management of lower back pain including adverse event reporting. Risk of injury to the head, neck or trunk following an office visit for chiropractic spinal manipulation, as compared to office visit for evaluation by primary care physician.
Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Primary Care and Internal Medicine — Chiropractic and Pain Management in Primary Care — evaluation of the analgesic effects of spinal manipulation on both healthy and pain inflicted patients. Discussion of evidence of increased in pressure pain thresholds in musculoskeletal pain at both local and remote sites. Detailed knowledge of patient population regarding demographics and socioeconomic factors as well as disease-specific characteristics. Suggestion that lower back pain should not be seen as benign and self-limiting with focus on management. Describe the communication system surrounding the management of chronic pain from the perspectives of allopathic providers, acupuncture and chiropractor providers, and chronic musculoskeletal pain patients. Chiropractic manipulative treatment (CMT) association with lower healthcare costs among multiply-comorbid Medicare beneficiaries with an episode of chronic low back pain was reviewed. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Primary Care and Internal Medicine — Perceptions of Chiropractic Care — demographic review of data on the perceptions of chiropractic care. Review of patient interest, trustworthiness, costs and frequency of visits was discussed. Nationally representative survey to compare characteristics and use of survey respondents with positive and negative perceptions of DCs and chiropractic care. Positive perceptions of DCs were more common than those for chiropractic care. US adults generally perceive DCs in a positive manner. Describe the preferences of older adults for low back pain co-management by MDs and DCs and identify their concerns for receiving care under such a treatment model. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Primary Care and Internal Medicine — Chiropractic and Post-Surgical Care and Care for Veterans — discussion of persistent post-surgical lower back and radicular pain response to chiropractic care. Relevant anatomy related to lower back pain and intervertebral disc injury was outlined and presented. Discussion and development of an integrated care pathway for doctors of chiropractic, primary care providers, and mental health professionals who manage veterans with low back pain, with or without mental health comorbidity, within Department of Veterans Affairs health care facilities. Support for the inclusion of chiropractic care as a component of multidisciplinary health care for low back pain, as currently recommended in existing guidelines with a focus on US Service Members. Discussion of availability of chiropractic care to military healthcare systems, referral and interprofessional communication models. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Primary Care and Internal Medicine — Effects of Chiropractic Care Combined with Medical Care, First Contact and Provider Type — differences in outcomes, patient satisfaction, and related healthcare costs in spinal, hip, and shoulder pain patients who initiated care with medical doctors (MDs) vs those who initiated care with doctors of chiropractic (DCs). Pain of muscuoloskeletal origin and epidemiology of reduced productivity. Comparison of data on health outcomes, patient satisfaction, and related healthcare costs in patients consulting differing first-contact care providers for musculoskeletal pain. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Primary Care and Internal Medicine — Integrating Chiropractic Care into Primary Care and Private Sector Healthcare Facilities — suggestion of a diverse role for chiropractors within conventional health care facilities. Discussion of chiropractic’s effectiveness for managing musculoskeletal disorders, particularly spine-related pain and disability. Descriptions of doctors of chiropractic who work in nongovernmental, private sector health care settings in the United States. Shared electronic health records, face-to-face informal consultations methods for interprofessional communication. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Specialty Research in Primary Care and Internal Medicine — American College of Physicians — Guideline Recommendations — Non-Invasive and Non-Pharmacological — American College of Physicians (ACP) developed this guideline to present the evidence and provide clinical recommendations on noninvasive treatment of low back pain. Systematically review the current evidence on non-pharmacologic therapies for acute or chronic non-radicular or radicular low back pain. Comparative benefits of non-pharmacological therapies in acute/subacute low back pain including exercise, spinal manipulation, lumbar supports, acupuncture, laser, ultrasound and traction. Discussion of first and second line therapies with reduction in opioid prescription. Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine, 2019.

Computerized Mensuration of Spinal Biomechanical Pathology, Understanding the algorithmic interpretation of spinal biomechanical pathology in a 3-D model and creating treatment plans, impairment ratings and teaching models based upon the vertebral motor unit angles. Determining sagittal and axial alignments in creating a normative baseline for treatment goals and outcomes. Cleveland University — Kansas City, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island NY, 2019

Neurosurgical-Chiropractic Collaboration on Spinal Pathology, Utilizing x-ray, MRI and other modalities of advanced imaging in conjunction with spinal biomechanical failure and clinical evaluation to collaboratively create treatment protocols for patients in both the operative and non-operative cases. Determining the boundaries of scope of care for both the chiropractor and neurosurgeon based upon a definitive diagnosis of the mechanical vs. an anatomical lesion. Cleveland University — Kansas City, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island NY, 2019

Documentation and Ethics in Medical-Legal Relationships, Creating ethical relationships based upon accurate documentation reflective of the casually related condition of the injured. Ensuring accepted credentials of the doctor based upon Voir Dire standards reflected in an admissible curriculum vitae. How to present demonstrative documentation in the courts reflective of the patient’s pathology. Cleveland University — Kansas City, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island NY, 2019

Coding, Documentation and Compliant Coding, Ensuring the correct codes are utilized in an evaluation and management encounter. The correct elements are utilized to support the level of E&M coded along with a self-audit program to ensure ethical billing occurs. Guidelines for history of present illness, primary complaint, review of systems, family, social and past histories are discussed and how to document the same. Cleveland University — Kansas City, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island NY, 2019

Connective Tissue Pathology, Spinal Biomechanics as Sequella to Trauma, MRI Spine Interpretation, Ordering Protocols & Triaging the Injured, Primary Spine Care 6, The latest research on the 6 ways to age-date disc herniations and bulges from trauma inclusive of disc pathology nomenclature. MRI ordering protocols, inclusive of Dixon format and fat-suppressed images. The neurology and pathology of connective tissue and the sequella of trauma at the biomechanical level leading to bio-neuro-mechanical failure. Con